УДК: 614.2:005.311.11

Aim. The medical care quality remains one of the most pressing issues of the health care system, especially at the stage of reforming of the medical sector. Medicalstatistical information comprising reporting forms is the basis for analyzing the status of medical care quality and incorporating management decisions to improve it.
Material and Methods. The study was performed by the means of analysis of the annual reports of the Urology Department of Municipal Non-profit Enterprise "Lviv Clinical Emergency Hospital" over a ten-year period: from 2010 to 2019. Statistical analysis included the analysis of average and relative values, as well as the calculation of indicators of the dynamic range: growth rate and absolute increase.
Results and Discussion. Analysis of the use of bed stock of the Urology Department of MNELCEH during 2010- 2019 showed that the average quantity of inpatient days is 251.12-340.18 days per year. Inpatient turnover was in the range of 30.28-36.55 patients per year. The indicator of surgical activity increased by 5.4 percentage points (from 33.0% in 2010 to 38.4% in 2019). There was also a positive tendency of decrease of the duration of post-surgery stay of patients at the inpatient department of the Urology Department (from 9.25 in 2010 to 8.55 in 2019). During the study period of 2010-2019, the ratio of post-surgical complications remained relatively stable and did not exceed 5.1% (the indicator is in the range of 4.38% -5.09%). The analysis of the total mortality among all treated patients was in the range of 0.06%-0.65%.
Conclusion. The indicators analyzed in the annual reports make it possible to identify the main problematic issues in the work of the department. In order to provide professional specialized care, quality and rational use of property and human resources, algorithms should be developed to increase treatment of patients with malignant tumors and urolithiasis at the department, as in recent years we could observe an outflow of patients with these
diagnoses to other healthcare establishments. There is a need for individual analysis of the causes of post-surgical complications and mortality. These issues can be resolved by introducing clinical audit into the work of the departmen.

УДК: 616.411-002.9-085-053.2

     Погляди хірургів щодо лікувальної тактики при кістах селезінки (КС) у дітей широко дискутуються в літературі. Окремими питаннями є показання та методика консервативного (неінвазивного) ведення (спостереження) пацієнтів з КС.
Мета – розробити раціональні тактичні підходи консервативного (неінвазивного) ведення пацієнтів дитячого віку з КС.
Матеріали та методи. Проведено ретроспективний аналіз консервативного (неінвазивного) ведення 90 (33,96%) із 265 пацієнтів дитячого віку з КС.

    Не оперували дітей за наявності в селезінці кістозного утворення діаметром менше 20 мм (n=61). Їм проводили УЗД спочатку 2 рази на 6 місяців, після цього – 2 рази на рік, до досягнення пубертатного віку. Прогресування росту кіст у цих дітей ми не спостерігали.

     Також не оперували тих дітей, у яких розміри кіст в селезінці були від 20 до 62 мм, мали безсимптомний перебіг і батьки не давали згоди на хірургічне лікування (n=29). Це найскладніша група пацієнтів для аналізу, оскільки у більшості із них відсутня інформація щодо динаміки. За результатами динамічного спостереження у 19 із 29 обстежених пацієнтів регресу кіст у селезінці не відмічено, що в наступному слугувало показанням до хірургічного лікування.
Результати та висновки. За наявності кіст у селезінці можливий вибір хірургічного лікування або консервативного (неінвазивного) ведення. Лікувальна тактика при КС у пацієнтів дитячого віку – строго індивідуальна і залежить від розмірів і локалізації ураження паренхіми. При КС діаметром до 20 мм раціональним є консервативне (неінвазивне) ведення, що підтверджено відсутністю прогресування росту кіст у цих дітей. Динамічне спостереження пацієнтів з КС діаметром більше 20 мм підтверджує відсутність регресу таких кіст, що в наступному служить показанням до хірургічного лікування.

    Дослідження виконано відповідно до принципів Гельсінської декларації. Протокол дослідження ухвалено Локальним етичним комітетом установи. На проведення досліджень отримано інформовану згоду батьків, дітей.

Автори заявляють про відсутність конфлікту інтересів.

Background and Aims: Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) is poorly diagnosed condition that cause splanchnic hypoperfusion
and abdominal organs ischemia and can lead to multiple organ failure. There are no scientific data regarding effect of intraabdominal pressure (IAP) on splanchnic circulation in children.
Material and Methods: Ninety‑four children after surgery for appendicular peritonitis were enrolled in the study. After IAP measurement children were included in one of two groups according IAP levels: “without IAH” (n = 51) and “with IAH” (n = 43). Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and portal vein (PV) blood flows (BFSMA, BFPV, mL/min) were measured, and SMA and PV blood flow indexes (BFISMA, BFIPV, ml/min*m2) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) were calculated in both groups.
Results: Median BFISMA and BFIPV in group “with IAH” were lower by 54.38% (P ˂ 0.01) and 63.11% (P < 0.01) respectively compared to group “without IAH”. There were strong significant negative correlation between IAP and BFISMA (rs  = –0.66; P ˂ 0.0001), weak significant negative correlation between IAP and BFIPV (rs = –0.36; P = 0.0001) in group “with IAH” and weak significant negative correlation between IAP and BFISMA (rs = –0.30; P = 0.0047) in group “without IAH”. There were no statistically significant correlations between IAP and BFIPV in group “without IAH”, between BFISMA and APP in both groups and between BFIPV and APP in both groups.
Conclusion: Elevated IAP significantly reduces splanchnic blood flow in children with appendicular peritonitis. BFISMA and BFIPV negatively correlate with IAP in these patients. There is no correlation between BFISMA/BFIPV and APP in children with IAH due to appendicular peritonitis.

УДК: 616.24-006-089-06[.001.36

The aim of the study was to identify factors that are associated with complications after surgery for lung cancer.

Materials and Methods. Retrospective analysis of the surgical treatment results in patients with lung cancer who were operated on in 2010-2014 at the department of thoracic surgery of the Lviv Oncological Regional Treatment and Diagnostic Center. The study included 461 patients. The data of each patient were divided into the following groups: general characteristics, tumor characteristics, treatment characteristics, and complications. The whole cohort of patients was analyzed and their separate subgroups were compared by age, type of complications, and type of surgery.

Results and Discussion. Elderly patients have three times higher levels of postoperative dyspnea and much higher levels of cardiac arrhythmias. Pulmonary complications are more common in men, after more aggressive surgeries with longer time of operative pulmonary ventilation; increase with age. This subgroup is also characterized by longer postoperative period and a higher in-hospital mortality rate. Postoperative complications such as dyspnea, fistula of the bronchial stump, and pleural empyema, higher levels of pleural punctures, and postoperative bed-day were more common in the group of patients who underwent pneumonectomy. A higher level of postoperative pneumonia and a longer drainage period were observed in the group of other operations. It is noteworthy that the level of dyspnea in elderly patients who underwent pneumonectomy is three times higher.

Conclusions. There are age-related features connected to the onset of postoperative complications in patients with lung tumors who have undergone surgery. Complications typical for the patients after different types of operations were found. It is established that the age of patients and the type of surgical treatment significantly change the palette of postoperative complications. An improved method for predicting complications is required.

УДК: 614.1:313.13:312.2:616.22-006.6(477)(477.83)"2010/2019"

Aim. Analysis of the epidemiological block of the model of early detection and prevention of laryngeal malignancies.
Material and Methods. A retrospective analysis of morbidity and mortality from malignant neoplasms of the larynx among the population of Ukraine and Lviv region for ten years (from 2010 to 2019). Statistical data of the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine were used. The following methods are used in the work: medical- statistical analysis, system approach, and structural- logical analysis.
Results and Discussion. The primary incidence of laryngeal cancer among the population of Ukraine decreased by 6% (from 5 cases per 100,000 population in 2010 to 4.7 cases per 100,000 population in 2019). In Lviv region, there was an increase in the level of primary morbidity by 12.3% (from 5.7 cases per 100,000 population in 2010 to 6.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2019). In 2010-2019, the mortality rates from laryngeal  cancer in Ukraine and Lviv region were in the range of 2.7-3.1 and 2.8-4.6 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. The proportion of men with newly diagnosed
laryngeal cancer was 94.4-95.8%, and women - only 4.2-5.6%. Analysis of sex and age incidence of laryngeal cancer in Ukraine in 2019 showed that the highest rates among both men and women were in the age group of 60-74 years. The proportion of patients with stage IV laryngeal cancer in Ukraine in 2010 and 2019 was 10.2% and 15%, respectively. A similar indicator in the Lviv region in 2010 was 12.6%, and in 2019 - 20.8%. Mortality
up to one year from among newly diagnosed patients in 2019 in Ukraine was 25.1%, and in Lviv region - 23%. In Ukraine in 2019, the proportion of patients detected at professional examinations was 11.2%, in Lviv region -only 0.7%.
Conclusion. The incidence of malignant neoplasms of the larynx among the population of Lviv region during the study period was higher than the national. There was a tendency to reduce the death rate from laryngeal cancer in both Ukraine and Lviv region. In men, laryngeal cancer is more common than in women in Ukraine and the Lviv region. The incidence of malignant neoplasms of the larynx is highest among people 60 years and older. There
was a low proportion of patients identified during preventive examinations, as well as high mortality rates up to one year from diagnosis and neglect of the malignant process.